Author: Emily Brontë
Publisher: Penguin Classics
Publication year: 2002–12
Series: Penguin Classics
Introduction(wuthering heights book summary)
“Wuthering Heights” is a masterpiece of Emily Brontë (1818–1848), the second sister of the famous three Brontë sisters in the British literary world, and is a shocking “strange novel”. The outcast Hickley and the only daughter of the owner of “Wuthering Heights”, Catherine, their childhood sweethearts, were separated by worldly pressure.
After Catherine died prematurely, Hickley’s affection turned into resentment towards everything around him. People started frantic revenge, and finally felt Catherine’s call, and the lover finally reunited after death. The earth-shattering and transcending love between the two is integrated with the wasteland and violent nature. The whole novel is like a long, passionate narrative poem.
About the Author
Emily Bronte (1818～1848), British novelist and famous poetess. Together with their sisters Charlotte Bronte and Ann Bronte, they are known as the “Three Sisters of Bronte” and are well-known in the British literary world in the 19th century.
The three sisters were born in a poor pastor’s family and grew up in a boarding school. In 1837, Emily Bronte taught in a rural school and died of lung disease at the age of 30. Her works are full of philosophy and mystery, fresh style, and sonorous rhythm. The novel “Wuthering Heights” is the only novel in her life, which established her position in the history of English literature.
Excerpts from the original text
If I were entirely contained here? My great miseries in this world have been Heathcliff’s miseries, and I watched and felt each from the beginning: my great thought in living is himself. If all else perished, and he remained, I should still continue to be; and if all else remained, and he were annihilated, the universe would turn to a mighty stranger; I should not seem a part of it. (Catherine) — My love for Linton is like the foliage in the woods; time will change it. I’m well aware, as winter changes the trees. My love for Heathcliff resembles the eternal rocks beneath a source of little visible delight, but necessary. Nell, I am Heathcliff! He’s always always in my mind; not as a pleasure, any more than I am always a pleasure to myself, but as my own being.
Since then, I have refreshed my understanding of novels and British writers’ understanding of human nature. Emily is indeed the most outstanding female writer of the nineteenth century. In this world, women’s understanding of men has always been deeper than men’s understanding of women. Many of the misfortunes of men stem from the lack of women.
His mother was lost when he was young, and his lover was lost in the youth. The whole book is a climax. Some people say that the reading process is very unpleasant. I think the shackles of human nature are the only depressive unpleasantness.
Wuthering Heights is deformed, sadomasochistic and full of violent and abused images, but there is no discomfort. Emily’s work is perfect even in terms of structure, and it is a ready-made script.
Book Review of Wuthering Heights
When I was reading “Wuthering Heights”, I happened to be reading “The Count of Monte Cristo”, and found that the male protagonists of these two works have quite a lot of similarities: both of them are women who are beloved and marry others, and they are both crushed by the enemy and ill-fated, Are all revenge crazy after getting rich suddenly…
However, when I finished reading these two books, I totally changed my mind.
In “The Earl of Monte Cristo”, the Earl repays his benefactor generously and shows no mercy to the three enemies. However, when he learns that the benefactor’s son is in love with the enemy’s daughter, he will take care of the girl in every possible way. When he sees the enemy’s young son being poisoned and killed, he will also be extremely painful and feel that his sin exceeds the limit of revenge.
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In “Wuthering Heights”, unlike the Earl of Monte Cristo’s “good and evil are rewarded”, Heathcliff doesn’t care about kindness, only remembers hatred, and long-term mental and physical abuse of his enemies and relatives, even his own innocent The son never let it go, he is a complete beast.
Heathcliff’s rare cruelty is shocking the world in the history of world literature with the theme of love. The in-depth analysis of him, including his and Catherine’s love and death, and the inextricable connection between the author of the book Emily Bronte and the beast she made, are the topics that this article wants to explore.
1. Spiritual twins
When Old Earnshaw adopted Heathcliff, he was about 13 years old. His Gypsy descent gave him dark skin, black eyes, and hair. Old Earnshaw loved him even more than his sons and daughters.
Heathcliff has a very good relationship with Catherine, who is about the same age, and Hindley thinks that he has taken away his father’s love and is deeply jealous of him, and therefore has an affair with his sister.
It is worth noting that Catherine is not a silly and sweet, but a wild and mad girl who wanders in the desolate wilderness with Heathcliff every day. The two grow freely like weeds.
Because of this, she agrees with Heathcliff. They are sloppy, unruly, and stubborn, laughing together for pranks, being scolded and punished together but not paying attention. There is only one punishment that makes them extremely painful. , That is to separate them.
After the death of Old Earnshaw, Hindley, who became the head of the family, took the opportunity to retaliate and demoted Heathcliff from an adopted son to a slave, depriving him of the opportunity to be educated with Catherine. Li Fu stepped on his feet hard.
On the contrary, Catherine got acquainted with the elegant and decent neighbors — the Linton family. Under their influence, she no longer rejected her sister-in-law in dressing her in a dress and dressing her up as a young lady.
Although Catherine originally believed that nothing could change her deep friendship with Heathcliff, Heathcliff became more and more difficult to get along with because of her low self-esteem, especially with the gentle and courteous Edgar. Compared with Linton, Catherine was a little disappointed, and the balance of emotions slowly tilted.
However, even in this case, Catherine still regarded Heathcliff as an irreplaceable soul mate:
“That’s not because he is beautiful, but because he is more like myself than me. No matter what our soul is made of, his and mine are exactly the same; and Linton’s soul is like moonlight and lightning, or frost. It’s completely different from fire.”
In the end, Catherine accepted the proposal of Edgar Linton, who was diametrically opposed to her. That night, Heathcliff walked away from home with a broken heart.
2. Heathcliff’s Revenge
Catherine and Edgar Linton’s wedding
A few years later, shortly after Catherine married Edgar, Heathcliff returned home in good style. Over the course of twenty years, he burned everyone who was wrong or innocent with a vengeance fire. ash.
There is only one exception, and that is Catherine herself. Just like the quarrel between Catherine and Heathcliff:
Madam Linton exclaimed in amazement: “I used to treat you very viciously — you want revenge! How do you get revenge? An ungrateful beast? How vicious did I treat you?”
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“I don’t want to retaliate against you,” Heathcliff replied, a little less angry. “That’s not in the plan… You tortured me to death in order to make myself happy, I am willing; just allow me to make myself happy in the same way,…”
At the same time, Catherine’s sister-in-law Isabella enthusiastically fell in love with this mysterious and unruly visitor. She was accustomed to seeing her brother Edgar’s cowardly and gentle character and was conquered by Heathcliff’s domineering male charm, and she wanted to marry him.
Catherine saw this and tried to persuade Isabella, desperately to explain to her Heathcliff’s cruel nature:
“An unnamed person, ignorant of elegance, no education, a wilderness with gorse and rocks. If you want me to give your heart to him, I would rather put that little canary in the garden in winter It’s a pity that you don’t understand his character, child, and there is no other reason.
It’s this sad confusion that makes that dream come into your mind. Please don’t think that he is deep under a stern appearance. Buried kindness and love affair! He is not a rough diamond — a beaded clam among the country folk, but a ferocious, merciless, cruel man like a wolf.”
Isabella, who was dazzled by love, said that because she thought Catherine was out of jealousy and didn’t want her to take away her former lover, she said this. As Catherine had expected, she fantasized about tame Heathcliff this beast with love, hoping to obtain endless pampering from his heroic admiration.
Heathcliff was very calm in front of Isabella. He had never deceived Isabella with tenderness and even made no secret of his hatred and contempt. On the day Isabella decided to elope with him, Heathcliff was hanging Isabella’s dog and told her that if he could, he planned to hang all Linton’s people like this, only one exception.
Such naked malice didn’t make Isabella wake up, thinking that the exception he was talking about was referring to herself.
Soon, Isabella fully realized Catherine’s foresight, and all her predictions about Heathcliff were fulfilled.
After the marriage, Heathcliff tried all kinds of ways to humiliate and abuse Isabella. When she endured the humiliation again and again and treated him well regardless of the previous humiliation, he instead called her a “sordid bitch.” In a fierce dispute, Heathcliff threw a table knife at Isabella and slashed her face with blood, which made her wake up, fled to the field, and gave birth to his son Kobayashi. Dumb.
At the same time, Catherine was seriously ill, and after exchanging in tears and kisses with Heathcliff, she gave birth to her little Catherine, who died within a few hours. This shattered the last trace of Heathcliff’s tenderness, allowing him to vent his hatred to every Earnshaw and every Linton, so as to alleviate the despair of losing his beloved love.
Heathcliff seduced Hindley into drinking and gambling, and lost all of Earnshaw’s estate to him; after Hindley died, he deprived Hareton of the opportunity to be educated and deliberately made him grow into a rough farmer, just like Hindley. Do the same to him once.
He also hated his son, Linton, because he possessed the looks and cowardly character of Linton, which he hated the most; when the children were more than ten years old, he cunningly tricked little.
When little Catherine rose up to resist, he didn’t care that this was the daughter of his beloved woman, and she beat her mouth full of blood. When little Catherine agreed to get married, he ignored his seriously ill son, thinking that he had no use-value, and even the doctor was reluctant to ask him, so he let him die of illness, making little Catherine a widow as soon as she got married.
In this way, all the properties of the Earnshaw and Lintons fell into Heathcliff’s hands through their in-law relationship, and the children of the enemy were under his deterrence, wantonly beating and insulting, and Servant is no different.
As we can see, in the pedigree chart at the beginning of this article, everyone except Catherine himself will be destroyed by his revenge. And his behavior has obviously exceeded the level of “reporting grievances directly”, full of brutal and brutal beasts.
3. Catherine’s love and choice
This terrible revenge of Heathcliff lasted for twenty years in the gloomy wilderness of Yorkshire, destroying two well-established ancient families, and costing two entire generations a painful price. If the kind old En Xiaoquan knows, I wonder if he would regret leading the wolf into the house. If I knew this was the result, it would be better to let this gypsy outcast starve to death on the street.
However, we can all see that the real turning point of fate lies in Catherine’s choice. She married Edgar, not Heathcliff. Even more bizarre, she loved Heathcliff from beginning to end. On the night that Edgar agreed to marry him, she described her feelings to the housekeeper like this:
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“In this world, my greatest grief is Heathcliff’s grief, and I have noticed and felt each other from the beginning. In my life, he is my strongest miss. If everything else All is destroyed, and he stays, I can continue to live; if everything else stays, but he is wiped out, this world will become a very strange place to me.”
Of course, she didn’t love Edgar, and she was overshadowed by her love for Heathcliff:
“My love for Linton is like a leaf in the woods. I fully know that when the trees change in winter, time changes the leaves. My love for Heathcliff is like the permanent rock below, though It doesn’t seem to give you much pleasure, but this pleasure is necessary.”
More importantly, Catherine knew clearly that she loved Linton because she loved him for beauty, for his gentleness, for his diligence, for his youth, and for his decent; however, the reason she loved Heathcliff was because of them. Originally twins in spirit:
“I am Heathcliff! He is always in my heart. He is not as a pleasure, not necessarily more interesting than me to me, but as myself.”
What kind of love can surpass the highest state of “you are me and I am you”? Even though it is such a strong feeling for Heathcliff that has been integrated into the blood, Catherine still chooses to marry Edgar, why is it so?
Heathcliff couldn’t figure it out all the time. After he returned, he bitterly mocked Catherine, who was already Mrs. Linton:
“I wish you happiness in this stinky kid, Katie! I congratulate you on your taste. What you don’t want me and would rather want is that drooling, trembling thing!”
Yes, we don’t understand, countless readers in the past two hundred years are equally confused because the reasons given by Catherine in the book are completely untenable. Catherine’s plan is to use the wealth and relationship of the Linton family after marrying Edgar to help Heathcliff change his destiny so that he can gain status and respect.
We still remember that when she persuaded Isabella not to fall in love with Heathcliff, she had a sharp insight into Heathcliff. She is him, she knows him as she knows herself, how could she not know that with Heathcliff’s character, she would rather die ten thousand times than accept any help and charity from the Linton family.
In some adaptations of film and television dramas, in order to justify her claim, Catherine was deliberately portrayed as a vain girl, seizing the words she had said: “Marrying Heathcliff will degrade my status.” In fact, Heathcliff also ran away angrily because he overheard this sentence, instead of hearing Catherine’s explanation and affectionate confession later.
It is worth noting that Catherine’s family Earnshaw and Edgar’s family Linton belong to the same class. Even if the Earnshaw family is not as rich as the Linton family, there are still cooks, butlers, and maids, and there are people to take care of everything. Catherine does not have an urgent need for marriage to change her destiny.
Since Catherine chose Edgar, not because of greed for vanity, how can she explain her feelings for Heathcliff?
It was not until I learned about the life of Emily Bronte, the author of Wuthering Heights, that the answer was right before my eyes.
4. Emily Bronte: A woman with a “beast” in her heart
In Emily Bronte’s short life of 30 years, “Wuthering Heights” is the only work she left behind.
She, her sister Charlotte Bronte and her sister Anne Bronte, are also known as the “Three Bronte Sisters” in the history of English literature, and they have their respective works handed down to the world and occupy a place.
The place where the story takes place in “Wuthering Heights” is a desolate wilderness in Yorkshire, which is also the place where Emily spends her life. She was born in a pastor’s family and her family is not very good. She and her three sisters went to a boarding school in poor conditions.
She did not eat well and had poor hygiene. Both of her sisters died because of this. She and her sister Charlotte’s health was also affected, so he dropped out of school and went home. From then on, he only went to school intermittently, without a systematic education. Later, in order to make a living, I worked as a tutor for a period of time. The Three Sisters planned to open a school, but never recruited students.
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Compared with the famous writers who lived and died, Emily’s life experience is surprisingly simple. So some people suspect that such a taciturn, withdrawn, shy, and single-experienced priest daughter, even stammers, unable to speak a complete sentence when young men and women gather. Can such a person write such painful passion and cruel and tyrannical works like “Wuthering Heights”?
In my opinion, only Emily can write this shocking novel.